From public health to the economy, the 2019 pandemic of coronavirus infection (COVID-19) has had a profound impact on almost every sphere of life. This disease, caused by severe respiratory coronavirus syndrome 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has lost more than 2.7 million lives to date. Along with issues of illness and mortality, the measures of lockout, social distance and loneliness have affected the mental health of people everywhere.
Anxiety, depression and fear have had a profound effect on the mental health of many people around the world. To address this, researchers have discovered some antiviral and brain enhancing compounds that may give you a new perspective.
A team of scientists, from the University of Kashmir, India; Rutgers University, USA; and Prince Songkla University, Thailand, reviewed the nanoencapsulation mechanisms of synergistic compounds (Lectins, Caffeine, Cocoa, Flavonoids, Quercetin) and the role of nanotechnology in the treatment of COVID-19 pandemics. They considered the dual action of such compounds for their brain enhancing and antiviral benefits. This review was recently published in the International Journal of Biological Macromolecules.
Currently, there are no safe and targeted therapeutic options for COVID-19, which is a prospective screening method for the study of brain-boosting fertilizers, possibly augmented by antiviral activities. The reviewers here considered some naturally occurring compounds, such as quercitin, caffeine, lectins from banana (Banlec) and cocoa flavonoids. They summarized the natural fertilizers with their antiviral and brain boosting properties in this review.
Previously, the COVID-19 condition was reported to have triggered a number of mental issues such as sleep disturbance, social media distress and paranoia from getting this viral infection; 80% of the study participants required mental health care. This state of mind may also cause oxidative stress and loss of immunity, reducing other symptoms.
Quercitin may prevent the neurons from apoptosis (programmed cell death) and oxidative stress. While caffeine and lectin may provide anti-depressant effects, cocoa flavonoids act as a neuro protector.
These fertilizers are also reported to have antiviral activities. Quercitin has inhibitory action against SARS and MERS, two closely related pathogens of SARS-CoV-2. Caffeine has antiviral activity against type I human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), lectin against influenza virus and the flavonoids can inhibit the binding of the viral membrane to the lysosome.
The new field of nanotechnology has greatly influenced the targeted delivery of nutraceuticals and theraputics. ”
For efficient delivery of these fertilizers to the target sites, nanoencapsulation is a modern tool. The application of nanotechnology has been shown to strengthen the thermal stability, oral bioavailability and water flexibility of the drug. Nanoencapsulation may bring benefits to the drug by altering the active component of these drugs.
The engineered nanoparticles have a high surface-to-volume ratio, good absorption properties and many bioactive components including resveratrol, curcumin, polyphenols, genistein, lycopene, anthocyanins and quercetin. under the control of nanoencapsulation to combat poor water tolerance, low oral bioavailability and low taste profiles. . ”
There are many synthesis methods and techniques available for the nanoencapsulation process. For example, nanotransporters such as yeast cells, nanogels, nanofibers and nanosponges are made from polysaccharides and lipids to be used for nanoencapsulation. Starchy nanocomposites and liposomes coated with chitosan, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, alginate microparticles and gold nanoparticles are among the potential nanocarriers. The reviewers recommend the appropriate nanoencapsulation approach for each of the fertilizers discussed here in the review.
The reviewers considered the issues in drug delivery and how nanotechnology-based approaches could help overcome them. For example, they considered a named antiviral vaccine mechanism, Nuvec®, which is polyethylenimine-activated silica-nanoparticles for the transport of nucleic acid. An ideal delivery system for vaccines and pharmaceuticals, these nanoparticles protect the cargo from the enzyme nucleic acid and do not cause any inflammatory response.
Theranostic nanoparticles, classified as inorganic, organic and virus-like self-assembling protein nanoparticles, are excellent tools in the application of nanotechnology to combat COVID-19. Also, the quantum dots (the semiconductor nanomaterials) ranging from 1 to 10 nm with tunable optical wavelengths, are novel imaging probes.
The researchers report that, due to their nano size and shape, the quantum dots pass through the SARS-CoV-2 with magnitudes between 60 and 140 nm, and the quantum dots also capture protein S of SARS-CoV-2 due to the positive surface charge. It can also interact with the virus’s negative RNA strands, creating reactive oxygen species within SARS-CoV-2.
It has been proven that the nanoparticles can deliver a range of antiviral agents and target both the immune system and the immune system. With nano-dimensions, high surface-to-dimension ratio, flexibility and choice of management through alternative routes, not only is the potential of nanotechnology in combating COVID-19 achieved in co-operation. nano-vaccine development text, but by delivering the nano-based antiviral agents, the reviewers explain.
This review has summarized some of the brain-stimulating and in addition antiviral fertilizers and clarified the nanoparticles of these synergistic fertilizers; this may prove to be a means of strategizing the creation of drugs to combat the adverse effects of COVID-19.