Will the COVID-19 vaccine need a booster dose?

In an effort to ensure the effectiveness of their COVID-19 vaccines against new variants of the novel coronavirus, both Pfizer and Moderna are testing the third booster dose of their two-dose vaccines.

On February 25, Pfizer announced that it was studying a third dose increase in some people who received the first dose of the vaccine more than six months ago. The company specifically said that the study was responsible for emerging and future changes of SARS-CoV-2, the coronavirus that causes COVID-19. Pfizer also said it was investigating the feasibility of a new, specifically “variable” vaccine targeting B.1.351 (the South African infectious variant).

Moderna also announced that they are ready to make a specific vaccine to target B.1.351, and the company is ready to begin a Phase 1 clinical trial of the vaccine. Moderna says it will examine the use of the new vaccine as a “boost dose” for people who have already been vaccinated. This enhanced picture will be examined in a Phase 1 clinical trial to see if it can “stimulate immunity against the various concerns,” Moderna said.

Both companies meant it would be months before even start-up data became available. In the meantime, you may have questions about possible COVID-19 enhancement images. Here is what experts know so far.

How do the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines work?

Both Pfizer and Moderna vaccines use a newer type of technology called messenger RNA (mRNA). The vaccines, which do not contain live virus, encode part of the spike protein – the part of the virus that gives birth to human cells – found on the surface of SARS-CoV-2, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

MRNA directs your cells to develop a piece of that protein that is unique to SARS-CoV-2. Your immune system recognizes these new pieces of protein as foreign invaders and puts up an immune response to fight against what it describes as disease (even if there is no threat). This causes you to develop antibodies that are specific to SARs-CoV-2, which will help you fight against future infections.

Your body eventually destroys both the mRNA and the proteins, but the antibodies stick around. Their longevity is still being investigated – the CDC specifically states that more data is needed from both vaccines.

How effective are the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines?

Both vaccines have been found to be highly effective in Phase 3 clinical trials. Research from Pfizer’s Phase 3 clinical trial has shown that the vaccine is 52% effective after the first dose, and approximately 95% effective after second dose in adults aged 16 and up.

Moderna Level 3 clinical trial results, published in New England Journal of Medicine, The company’s vaccine found that about 94.1% is effective against COVID-19 in people aged 18 and over

But – and this is great but – the tests were done before various variants such as B.1.1.7, first discovered in the UK, and B.1.351 spread rapidly, says William Schaffner, MD, an infectious disease specialist and professor at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. In other words, there is a possibility that the effectiveness of vaccines today may be lower than the data from months ago.

With the new research being carried out, both Pfizer and Moderna are “trying to pinpoint whether the changes could affect the immunity that comes with their vaccines,” said Reynold Panettieri, MD , director of the Institute for Translational Medicine and Science at Rutgers University.

Is a third dose increase required for COVID-19 protection?

Both companies suggested that they are concerned about the potential impact of the South African variable on the effectiveness of their vaccines, as well as the potential for future changes to make their vaccines less effective.

“It’s still early days in science,” says Dr. Schaffner. “We may be able to use the standard vaccine as a booster to protect against changes – if we need to. We still don’t know how long the standard two-dose vaccine will protect us. ”

There are different strategies to deal with changes, adds infectious disease expert Amesh A. Adalja, MD, a senior scholar at the Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. “One is to renew the vaccine, and the other to add another boost with the same formulation,” he explains. By creating an increase this may increase antibodies and T cells (a type of white blood cell that is an essential part of your immune system) enough to help deal with SARS-type changes Original, dominant CoV-2.

It is also possible that bullets could make an already effective vaccine booster. “They are probably trying to see if they can increase the efficiency closer to 100%,” says Dr Panettieri.

Until medical experts know more, Dr. Adalja confirms that receiving two doses of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccine will still offer well-deserved protection. “Getting the vaccine with the original vaccine should remain a priority, which will affect the different changes when it comes to what matters – serious illness, hospitalization and death,” he says.

In addition, people across the country are still waiting to receive the first dose of the vaccine. “[A third dose] it would be logically difficult in the short term, ”says Dr Adalja. However, he said, the spread should get easier over time as more vaccine systems and supplies become available.

This article is inaccurate from the media era. However, as the COVID-19 pandemic grows rapidly and the scientific community’s understanding of the novel coronavirus develops, some of the information may have changed since it was last updated. While we aim to maintain all of our stories, visit online resources from the CDC, WHO, and for local public health department to stay up to date with the latest news. Always consult your doctor for professional medical advice.

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