What if there is no dark matter? A unique prediction of “Modified Gravity” challenges a dark notion

Messier 63 Galaxy sunflower

The best example is represented by the Sunflower galaxy (Messier 63 / NGC 5055) with the strongest outer range among SPARC galaxies, whose well-measured orbital curve exhibits decays gently at a large radial speed and can only be properly modeled by an external field. effect. Credit: ESA / Hubble & NASA

A team of international colleagues seeks an ‘outside field effect,’ a prediction specific to MOND, a dark subject idea competitor.

An international group of scientists, including Case Western Reserve University Astronomy Chair Stacy McGaugh, has published research that claims that the idea is competitive with the idea- a popular dark subject idea makes a more dramatic prediction of a galactic phenomenon that seems to go against the classic rules of gravity.

This is important, the astronomers say, because it establishes the concept – known as modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND), or “altered gravity” – as a possible explanation for a cosmological dilemma: that it galleries seem to be pushing long-adopted gravity rules. it was discovered by Sir Isaac Newton in the late 1600s.

The secret: For decades, we’ve measured more attraction in place than we think we should have – there isn’t enough visible or recognizable material to describe it.

Proponents of dark matter therefore argue that most of the known universe is made of a material that does not interact with light, making it invisible and invisible. understand – but that this substance makes up much of the attraction among galleries. It has been a leading theory for nearly 50 years.

MOND theory, another explanation introduced by the physicist Mordehai Milgrom from the Weizmann Institute (Israel) in the early 1980s, states that this distraction is due to the slightly modified gravity rules. .

Instead of applying too much traction to a previously unseen, unrecognizable dark matter, MOND suggests that gravity at low acceleration is stronger than would be expected with true Newtonian understanding.

Moreover, MOND made a bold prediction: movements within an object in the cosmos should be not only proportional to the size of the object itself, but also the gravitational pull from all other masses in the cosmos. universe – known as the “outer field effect” (EFE).

Milgrom said the findings, if proven to be strong, are “the smoke gun that proves that galaxies are governed by altered dynamics rather than adherence to Newton’s laws and commonality.”

150 galaxies tested for EFE

McGaugh and his colleagues, led by Kyu-Hyun Chae, of Sejong University in South Korea, say they found this EFE in more than 150 galaxies studied.

Their results were recently published in The Astrophysical Journal.

“The external impact is a specific signature of MOND that does not occur in Newton-Einstein severity,” McGaugh said. “This is not at all like conventional theory in the dark. Finding this effect is a real no-brainer. ”

The team of six astronauts and astronauts includes lead author Chae and other partners from the United Kingdom, Italy and the United States.

“I’ve been working on the idea that it’s a dark affair, and I was very surprised by this result,” Chae said. “Initially, I was reluctant to explain our own findings in relation to MOND. But now I can’t deny that the results as they stand clearly support MOND rather than the dark topic hypothesis. ”

Analyzing rotating galaxies

The group analyzed 153 orbital loops of disk galaxies as part of their study. The galleries were selected from the Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curves (SPARC) database, created by another collaborator, Federico Lelli, during his postdoctoral studies at Case Western Reserve, McGaugh and co-author James Schombert , from the University of Oregon.

In addition to Chae, McGaugh, Lelli and Schombert, the authors of the research were Pengfei Li from Case Western Reserve and Harry Desmond from the Oxford University.

The scientists said they eliminated EFE by claiming that galaxies in strong outdoor areas would slow down (or exhibit declining circulation loops) more often than galaxies in weaker outdoor areas – as would be expected from MOND alone.

Lelli said he was initially skeptical of the results “because the external impact on circulation loops is expected to be very small. We spent months exploring different systems. In the end, it was clear we had a really hard track. ”

McGaugh said that suspicion is part of the scientific process and that he understands the willingness of many scientists to consider MOND as a potential.

“I came from the same place as those in a dark community,” he said. “It hurts to think we could be so wrong. But Milgrom predicted this 30 years ago with MOND. No other theory expected the observed behavior. ”

Fact: “Testing the principle of strong equality: detecting the impact of external sites in rotary-assisted galleries” by Kyu-Hyun Chae, Federico Lelli, Harry Desmond, Stacy S. McGaugh, Pengfei Li and James M. Schombert, 20 November 2020, The Astrophysical Journal.
DOI: 10.3847 / 1538-4357 / abbb96

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