Scientists have discovered a cosmic gravitational accelerator

Neodrinos provide a remarkable insight into the general hidden mechanism of particle acceleration in astrophysical objects. The IceCube Collaboration recently revealed the potential relationship of a single high-energy neutrino with a flame from the relevant jet of an active galaxy identified toward Earth.

Scientists at ICRAR recently discovered neutrino back to such a ‘tidal disturbance event’ (TDE). The team said that these unforeseen cosmic catastrophes could be powerful natural grain accelerators.

The subatomic ball, called a neutrino, was dragged toward Earth after the doomed star came too close to the supermassive black hole in the center of a home galaxy and was torn apart by colossal gravity of the black hole .

This study helps scientists understand the power of the cosmos study by using a combination of different ‘messages’ such as photons (particles of light) and neutrinos, also known as astronomy. multi-messenger.

Co-author Marek Kowalski, head of neutrino astronomy at DESY and professor at Humboldt University in Berlin, said “The combined ideas demonstrate the power of multi-messenger astronomy. Without detecting the tidal disturbance event, the neutrino would be just one of many. And without the neutrino, observing the event of a tidal disturbance would be just one of many. It was only through the mixing that we were able to find the accelerator and learn something new about the internal processes. ”

The neutrino discovered by scientists traveled 700 million years from the long unnamed galaxy in the constellation Delphinus (the dolphin) to reach the neutrino IceCube detector at the South Pole. According to scientists, the supermassive black hole launched by this neutrino must be as large as 30 million suns.

In this artistic offering, based on a true image of the IceCube Lab at the South Pole, a remote store distributes neutrinos found under the ice with IceCube sensors, called DOMs. Credit: IceCube / NSF

Lead author Robert Stein, a DESY scientist, said “The strength of gravity grows stronger and stronger, the closer you get to something. That means that gravity of the black hole pulls the side near the star stronger than the other side of the star, leading to a stretching effect. This difference is called a tidal force, and as the star gets closer, this stretch becomes longer. Eventually, it tears the star apart, and then we call it a tidal wave event. This is the only process that follows a tidal wave on Earth, but fortunately for us, the moon does not pull hard enough to shake the Earth. ”

On October 1, 2019, the South Pole IceCube detector recorded a very active neutrino neutrino from the tidal riot incident management. The neutrinos are very lightly interacting with almost anything, passing unconsciously through not only walls but whole planets or stars, and are often referred to as ghost grains.

Scientists noted, “Even catching just one neutrino full of energy is an amazing sight. This discovery further highlighted the event with many instruments across the electromagnetic spectrum, from radio waves to X-rays. ”

ICRAR-Curtin Professor James Miller said, “Not all incidents of rioting are likely to result in such a lively outflow. The radio discovery of this incident therefore provided important evidence that it appeared to be the source of the neutrino. ”

Lead author Robert Stein explains that “This is the first neutrino associated with a tidal disturbance event, and it provides us with valuable evidence. Tidal turbulence incidents are not well understood. The neutrino detection indicates a moderately strong engine near the collection disc, spouting out fast particles. And the full analysis of data from radio, optical and ultraviolet telescopes provides further evidence that the TDE acts as a major granular accelerator. ”

Francis Halzen, Professor at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Principal Investigator of IceCube, who was not directly involved in the study, said “Maybe we only see the top of the iceberg here. In the future, we expect to find many more connections between high-energy neutrinos and their sources. A new generation of telescopes will be built that will increase the sensitivity of TDEs and other potential neutrino sources. Even more crucial is the proposed expansion of the IceCube neutrino detector, which would increase the number of cosmic neutrino detections by at least tenfold. ”

Dr Miller-Jones said, “It is very exciting that the Australian astronomers’ radio astronomy experience is a means of discovering these new perspectives on an energetic Earth. The huge jump in sensitivity with the Square Kilometer Array allows detailed studies of more of these cataclysmic events. This will provide an essential new perspective on the operation of black holes. ”

The Neutrino IceCube Observatory is a facility of the U.S. National Science Foundation operated at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station under the U.S. Antarctic Program. In addition to IceCube and ZTF, the instruments Spectral Power Distribution Device (SEDM), 200-inch Hale Palomar Telescope (P200), Liverpool Telescope (LT), NASA’s Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory, Lowell Discovery Telescope, Lick Observatory Lick Telescope , Keck Telescope, ESA (XMM-Newton) X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission, Karl G. Jansky Large Array (AMA), MeerKAT, and NASA’s Fermi Large Area Telescope LAT) observational data for analysis.

Magazine Information:
  1. Robert Stein, Sjoert van Velzen, Marek Kowalski, et al. Coincidental tidal disturbance incident with high energy neutrino. Astronomy of nature, 2021, DOI: 10.1038 / s41550-020-01295-8