Happy Birthday to Isaac Newton | Human World

Isaac Newton through Wikimedia Commons.

Isaac Newton was born on January 4, 1643, at Woolsthorpe Manor House in the United Kingdom. Newton became a mathematician, physicist and astronomer, and is now world-renowned as a scientist who helped us understand the universe through his discoveries that became the basis of it. many scientific principles.

Newton published his ideas in three well-known books entitled Philosophae Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often called direct Principia, which is reportedly a masterpiece. In this work, Newton says his part three laws of motion, which is now the foundation of classical celestial mechanics. Principia also reveals what Newton revealed about gravity.

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Newton’s three laws of motion. They are called laghan, but they are in fact descriptions of basic facts about our physical universe.

1. An object remains at rest unless expelled by another force. An object that moves continues to move at the same speed and in the same direction unless another external force takes it. This law is often called law of inertia. Click here to read more about Newton’s First Law of Motion.

2. When a force works on a mass, acceleration taken out. The more the mass of the object is accelerated, the greater the effect required to accelerate the object. Click here to read more about Newton’s Second Law of Motion.

3. For each action there is an equal and opposite answer. Click here to read more about Newton’s Third Law of Motion.

Newton realized that the force of gravity extends to the moon anyway. Image via physicwithperrone.com.

Newton’s publications on gravity. Remember the story of the apple falling on Newton’s head? While this is not necessary in every detail, Newton apparently watched an apple fall from a tree and began to think that, until it fell to the ground, the apple accelerated from zero when hanging on the tree.

According to his Second Law of Motion, acceleration is achieved when a force acts on an object. Newton must have been thinking, what force is that? He came to understand this force as every school child knows today gravity.

Newton’s real revelation was that the force of gravity does not just extend to the tops of apple trees. If an apple tree were as high as a mountain, for example, the apple would still fall. The force would still be in operation. Newton’s view was that the force of gravity extends far beyond… to the moon. He recognized that the orbit of the moon around the Earth is due to a gravitational force.

In fact, the force of gravity extends across a wide area. Today, physicists refer to Newton’s views on gravity as the law of universal grazing.

Others who followed Newton – notably Albert Einstein – explained our understanding of gravity. The most accurate description of gravity today can be found in Einstein’s general theory of relativity, which states that gravity is the result of space-time bending.

Do you wonder what Newton revealed about depth? Check out this 15-minute video:

If Newton had only added to his three laws of motion and his understanding of universal grazing, we would have remembered him as one of the greatest scientists of the world. But Newton did not stop there. He also built one of the first practical reflective telescopes, contributed to the invention of calculus, and explored how white light can be broken up into a color spectrum by a prism, thus laying the foundation for much of astronomy. today.

But Newton himself knew what remained to be found. He is known to have said:

I don’t know what I might have revealed to the world, but to me it seems like I was just a boy playing on the beach, and taking myself away. now and then finding a better-than-usual gravel or shell, while I was the ocean of truth lying all that had not been found before me.

One weird fact about Isaac Newton is that you can say he had two birthdays, ten days apart. You may have seen Newton’s birthday before December 25, 1642. That reference is beginning to change, and it is now more common to see Newton’s birthday as January 4, 1643. .The difference is due to the fact that when Newton was born in England he was in the middle of a 150 year period of using a different calendar from the rest of Europe. The rest of the continent had adopted the Gregorian calendar, which is the same calendar we use today. However, at the time of Newton’s birth, the English were still using the Julian calendar, which was ten days late due to a faulty method of accounting for leap years. (Surprisingly, 1642 was the year Galileo died.)

So Newton himself would have said that his birthday was December 25th. But everywhere outside England he was born on 4 January. Read more about Newton’s birthday difference.

Einstein’s theory of 1916 about universal relativity did not replace Newton’s theory of gravity. But it changed our understanding of gravity so that large objects can now be seen causing damage in space-time, which passing objects feel like gravity. Today, scientists are talking about a whole new theory of depth. Artist concept through NASA.

Baseline: Isaac Newton may have claimed two dates of birth, but now his birthday is recognized as January 4, 1643. Newton’s work in gravity and the laws of motion form the basis of many modern understanding of physics and astronomy.

Deborah Byrd